White, black, wholemeal, basmati, Thai … There are many rice varieties, the most widely consumed cereal in the world after wheat. Each has its health benefits. Which? What nutrients does it contain? How much to eat? What about the rice cooking water? Rice vinegar or rice milk? Are these products of nutritional value? Discovery with our nutrition specialist.
What are the benefits of rice?
They are numerous and vary according to their categories. Thus, white rice, because it is rich in carbohydrates, will be a source of energy as well as an ally in the event of diarrhea because it has astringent properties. Brown rice and red rice are high in fiber to fight constipation, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. “They also contain antioxidants as well as group B vitamins, especially the immunostimulating vitamin B9, and minerals such as anti-fatigue magnesium, phosphorus which helps maintain normal bones and contributes to healthy teeth as well as potassium, an asset for the proper functioning of the heart “, indicates Marie-Laure André, dietician-nutritionist.
You will find several types of rice on the market:
- White rice,
- Red rice,
- Semi-whole or whole rice, also called brown rice,
- Basmati rice
- Wild rice
- Thai rice
- Black rice (venere or Camargue) …
Which rice to choose?
It all depends on the dish you want to make.
► White rice is a classic accompaniment to fish, squid, and scallops. It can also be incorporated into soups to thicken them. Fan of Indian cuisine? Use it to prepare a biryani (Indian dish made with lamb or chicken, various vegetables, and spices). Sweet version, it allows you to make rice cakes or rice with spices. Mixed with caramel, it goes wonderfully with diced apples or red fruits.
► Brown rice is ideally prepared in a pilaf with small vegetables. Mixed with minced meat, it makes a perfect filling to garnish peppers, zucchini, or eggplant. It is also cooked in vegetable pancakes (combined with an egg, oatmeal, and vegetables).
► Basmati rice is perfect in dishes like tagines, curries, tandoori chickens, and vindaloo. It also spices up grilled, steamed, or court-bouillon fish. Finally, it accompanies dishes based on coconut curry sauce, such as shrimp or chicken. With its slightly sweet taste, red rice goes very well with white meat dishes made from oleaginous fruits (cashews, almonds, etc.), crab (in croquettes, for example), or fish with a sauce. Soy.
► Wild rice is not rice in the strict sense of the term, but a seed native to the Great Lakes region of North America, which only owes its rice name to its elongated shape. However, today it is accepted as such. It has a little nutty taste that goes perfectly with Tex-Mex cuisine, a dish of Armorican squid, stewed meats such as beef bourguignon.
What nutritional composition and how many calories?
|Per 100 g (cooked)||White rice||Complete rice||Basmati rice||Red rice||Wild rice|
|Calories||146 Kcal||157 Kcal||116 Kcal||141 Kcal||101 Kcal|
|Protein||2.95 g||3.21 g||2.74 g||3.45 g||3.8 g|
|Carbohydrates||31.7 g||32.6 g||24.4 g||28.2 g||19.7 g|
|Lipids||0.56 g||1 g||0.6 g||0.69 g||0.34 g|
|Fibers||1.1 g||2.3 g||1 g||4 g||1.8 g|
|Vitamin B1||0.07 mg||0.065 mg||0.015 mg||0.11 mg||0.052 mg|
|Vitamin B2||0.019 mg||0.01 mg||0.01 mg||0.05 mg||0.087 mg|
|Vitamin B9||12.1 µg||29.4 µg||8.77 µg||9 µg||26 µg|
|Magnesium||10 mg||49 mg||7.1 mg||54.5 mg||32 mg|
|Iron||0.1 mg||0.32 mg||0.17 mg||1 mg||0.6 mg|
|Potassium||41.7 mg||43 mg||18 mg||75.4 mg||101 mg|
Source: Ciqual table from ANSES.
How much to eat per day?
“By varying the varieties, we can eat one serving of rice per day, alternating with other cereals,” recommends the dietician. We consider a portion of rice at 40 to 50 g as an accompaniment, 80 to 100 g as the main course.
Rice milk: what are the benefits?
This vegetable drink is not milk. It is obtained by leaving rice soaked before heating it. It is then left to stand to ferment, then filtered to collect the “milk.” It can then be flavoured or marketed plain. ” Very little fat (it contains less than 1% of lipids ), it is particularly digestible. Because it contains starch, it helps to calm bloating and digestive pains. Finally, it is lactose-free, which makes it a food of choice for people who are intolerant to this milk sugar ” explains Marie-Laure André.
Rice flour: what are the benefits?
From this cereal, it is also possible to make flour. It is carried out by grinding the grains of rice. Fine and light in texture, it has a neutral taste and exists in three versions: white rice flour, semi-whole rice flour, or whole rice flour. Is it a trump card? “It does not contain gluten, a protein that can cause severe digestive pain in cases of intolerance or allergy, says Marie-Laure André. It can therefore be an alternative to wheat flour for various preparations (pies, pancakes, cakes, bread or pizza doughs…) “. It is also a source of energy thanks to its carbohydrate content (80.13 g / 100), group B vitamins as well as anti-fatigue minerals such as magnesium and potassium. “Finally, it is a source of fibre (except, in the case of white rice flour), an asset to fight, regulate intestinal transit and fight against diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular ailments“, completes our report expert.
Rice cooking water: what are the benefits?
“When the rice is cooked, some of its minerals and vitamins migrate into the cooking water. This is the case for B vitamins, potassium, iron, zinc or even magnesium. Consuming it in the form of broth allows not to lose its precious nutrients, ” recommends our expert. It is also very useful for improving digestion: rice also loses starch with astringent properties during cooking. It is helpful in the fight against digestive pain and bloating. Finally, it allows rehydration in case of diarrhea.
Rice vinegar: what are the benefits?
This, inseparable from Asian cuisine, is obtained from the fermentation of rice. Thanks to its acidity, it is a good antibacterial and antiseptic. Alkalizing participates in the acid-base balance of the body.
What are the dangers of eating too much rice?
The consumption of rice is not dangerous for health, particularly if one diversifies the types of rice. Except for the white rice. The reason? The fact of having lost its envelope during the treatments makes this rice particularly poor in vitamins of group B, essential for the good functioning of the organism, and in minerals. Better to eat it “in moderation”! Especially since a study conducted by Harvard doctors and published in 2012 in the British Medical Journal revealed that the largest consumers of white rice (5 servings of 150 g / week) had a risk of developing type diabetes two increased by 25%, involved in its high Glycemic Index (GI)which causes a sudden rise in blood sugar levels.